Tokamak with tilted coils and no solenoid generates rotational transform similar to stellarator
Experimental evidence was obtained that CIRCUS, constructively similar to a tokamak, but solenoid-free and with tilted coils, generates rotational transform, similar to a stellarator! An electron beam injected by an electron gun followed a field-line. In their trajectories, the electrons collided with neutrals, and light was emitted in the subsequent recombination and de-excitation, permitting to visualize the field-line that, indeed, is spiral-like, i.e. has rotational transform. No solenoid or current drive was used.